Parts of the Sentence - Verbals - Gerunds
A gerund is a verbalA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. Source: Lesson 206 that always ends in ing and is used as a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. Examples: man, city, book, and courage. Source: Lesson 16.
Eating is fun.
Gerunds can be compound.
Jeff likes hiking and camping.
The gerund can be a
subjectThe subject tells who or what about the verb. Source: Lesson 91, a
direct objectA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 106, a predicate nominativeA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals. Source: Lesson 101, an appositiveAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun. Source: Lesson 126, an indirect objectAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object. Source: Lesson 191, or an object of a prepositionA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object. Source: Lesson 180.
Eating is fun. (subject)
I like eating. (direct object)
A fun time is eating. (predicate nominative)
A fun time, eating, takes much time. (appositive)
I give eating too much time. (indirect object)
I give much time to eating. (object of preposition)
Gerunds can have with them direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155, or modifiers to form what is called a gerund phrase.
EatingS solidAdj foodsDO is hard for babies.
Eating solid foodsS is hard for babies. (the phrase is the subject)
Eating is the gerund used as the subject of the verb is. It has its own direct object foods with the adjective solid, which together make up the gerund phrase.
Instructions: Find the gerunds and gerund phrases in the following sentences and tell if they are used as a subject, a direct object, a predicate nominative, an appositive, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.
1. Turning off the freeway was our mistake.
2. The secretary's duties are taking minutes and typing letters.
3. You can start this machine by simply pushing this button.
4. His assignment, testing jet planes, is really exciting.
5. In some countries tourists can be arrested for taking pictures.