Daily Grammar

Lesson 223

Parts of the Sentence - Verbals - Participles

A participle is a verbalA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.  Source: Lesson 206 and is used as an adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151.  Participles end in various ways.  They modify nounsA noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: man, city, book, and courage. Nouns often follow words like a, an, and the. Source: Lesson 16 and pronounsA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or a group of words used as a noun.
Source: Lesson 21
and can precede or follow the word they modify.

A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerundA gerund is a verbal that always ends in ing and is used as a noun.  Source: Lesson 215, but remember that it is an adjective.  A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly.

Examples:
played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen

A participial phrase is made up of a participle and any complements (direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 106
, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 101, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, or modifiers) like the gerund.  A participial phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subjectThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 91 of the sentence.

Instructions: Find the participial phrases in these sentences and tell what word they modify.

1. The man running slowly still finished the race.

The man running slowly still finished the race.
 - running slowly modifies manS

2. The boy having been scolded finally did his work.

The boy having been scolded finally did his work.
 - having been scolded modifies boyS

3. The teacher, having retired, could now travel widely.

The teacher, having retired, could now travel widely.
 - having retired modifies teacherS

4. The soldier, having saluted his superior, continued on his way.

The soldier, having saluted his superior, continued on his way.
 - having saluted his superior modifies soldierS

5. The truck swerving and sliding hit the brick wall.

The truck swerving and sliding hit the brick wall.
 - swerving and sliding modifies truckS


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