Daily Grammar

Lesson 225

Parts of the Sentence - Verbals

A participle is a verbalA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.  Source: Lesson 206 and is used as an adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151.  Participles end in various ways.  They modify nounsA noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: man, city, book, and courage. Nouns often follow words like a, an, and the. Source: Lesson 16 and pronounsA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or a group of words used as a noun.
Source: Lesson 21
and can precede or follow the word they modify.

A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerundA gerund is a verbal that always ends in ing and is used as a noun.  Source: Lesson 215, but remember that it is an adjective.  A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly.

Examples:
played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen

A participial phrase is made up of a participle and any complements (direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 106
, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 101, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, or modifiers) like the gerund.  A participial phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subjectThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 91 of the sentence.

An infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form.  It can be used as an adjective.

Examples:
to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten

An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive and any complements (direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectives, or modifiers) like the gerund.  An infinitive phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subject of the sentence.

Instructions: Find the participles, infinitives, participial phrases, and infinitive phrases in these sentences and tell what word they modify.

1. The money lying on the dresser is yours.

The money lying on the dresser is yours.
 - lying on the dresser modifies moneyS

2. The crying child awakened everyone.

The crying child awakened everyone.
 - crying modifies childS

3. The heavy package to be sent was quickly loaded.

The heavy package to be sent was quickly loaded.
 - to be sent modifies packageS

4. Hearing the noise, the girl was suddenly afraid.

Hearing the noise, the girl was suddenly afraid.
 - Hearing the noise modifies girlS

5. There are several things to be considered first.

There are several things to be considered first.
 - to be considered first modifies thingsPN


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