Daily Grammar

Lesson 241

Parts of the Sentence - Verbals Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verb, subjectsThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 91, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 101, direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 106
, appositivesAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 126, nouns of addressNouns or nominatives of address are the persons or things to which you are speaking. They are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas, may have modifiers, and are not related to the rest of the sentence grammatically. You can remove them and a complete sentence remains. Source: Lesson 131, adjectivesAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, adverbsAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161, prepositionsA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180, objects of the preposition, indirect objectsAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, objective complementsAn objective complement can be a noun or an adjective which follows the direct object renaming or modifying it. It is used with verbs like make, name, call, choose, elect, and appoint.  Source: Lesson 196, conjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases (groups of words), or clauses (groups of words with a subjects and verb).  Source: Lesson 201, and verbalsA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.  Source: Lesson 206 in the following sentences.

If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerundA gerund is a verbal that always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Example: Eating is fun.  Source: Lesson 212, participleA participle is a verbal and is used as an adjective. Participles end in various ways. They modify nouns and pronouns and can precede or follow the word they modify. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.  Source: Lesson 222, noun infinitiveA noun infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as a noun. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 212, adjective infinitiveAn adjective infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adjective. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 224, or adverb infinitiveAn adverb infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 234.  If there are any adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, verbals, or verbal phrases then tell what word they modify.

Example:
The actors performed there to entertain and to be seen.
TheAdj actorsS performedV thereAdv to entertainVbl  
andC to be seenVbl.

  - The modifies actors
  - there modifies performed
  - to entertain and to be seen (adverb infinitives) modify performed

1. I finally bought me a hearing aid to hear better.

IS finallyAdv boughtV meIO aAdj hearing aidDO  
to hearVbl betterAdv.

  - finally modifies bought
  - a modifies hearing aid
  - to hear better (adverb infinitive phrase) modifies bought
  - better modifies to hear

2. Sometimes I just need to try again.

SometimesAdv IS justAdv needV to tryVbl againAdv.

  - Sometimes and just modify need
  - to try again (noun infinitive phrase) used as the direct object
  - again modifies to try

3. Having decided definitely, he stepped onto the train to leave home.

Having decidedVbl definitelyAdv, heS steppedV  
ontoPrep theAdj trainOoP to leaveVbl  
homeAdv.

  - Having decided definitely (participial phrase) modifies he
  - definitely modifies Having decided
  - onto the train (prepositional phrase) modifies stepped
  - the modifies train
  - to leave home (adverb infinitive phrase) modifies stepped
  - home modifies to leave

4. The person winning the lottery will have a different life.

TheAdj personS winningVbl theAdj lotteryDO  
will haveV aAdj differentAdj lifeDO.

  - The modifies person
  - winning the lottery (participial phrase) modifies person
  - the modifies lottery
  - lottery is a direct object to winning
  - a and different modify life

5. You can only reach our place by crossing the river.

YouS canV onlyAdv reachV ourAdj placeDO byPrep  
crossingVbl theAdj riverDO.

  - only modifies can reach
  - our modifies place
  - by crossing the river (prepositional phrase) modifies can reach
  - crossing the river (gerund phrase) used as the object of the preposition
  - the modifies river
  - river is a direct object to crossing

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