Daily Grammar

Lesson 262

Parts of the Sentence - Adverb Dependent Clauses

A complex sentence is made up of an independent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.
Source: Lesson 246
and a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246.

Example:
The television was playingindependent clause   
as I left the roomdependent clause.

There are three kinds of dependent clauses: adjective clauseThe adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.
Source: Lesson 251
, adverb clause, and noun clause. An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, or another adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161. They usually modify the verb.

Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84
including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.

Example:
They arrived before the game had endedadverb clause.

 - before the game had ended modifies arrived

Sometimes the adverb clause is placed at the beginning of the sentence. When it introduces the sentence, it is always set off with a comma.

Example:
Before the game had endedadverb clause, they  
arrived.

Instructions: Find the adverb dependent clauses in the following sentences and tell which word it modifies.

1. When you came from the garage, did you see the mower there?

When you came from the garageadverb clause, did  
you see the mower there?

 - When you came from the garage modifies did see

2. Because the field was muddy, the game had to be cancelled.

Because the field was muddyadverb clause, the  
game had to be cancelled.

 - Because the field was muddy modifies to be cancelled

3. Although you should return to class, just wait here for me.

Although you should return to classadverb clause,  
just wait here for me.

 - Although you should return to class modifies wait

4. As I sat motionless, the two squirrels came closer and closer.

As I sat motionlessadverb clause, the two squirrels  
came closer and closer.

 - As I sat motionless modifies came

5. Since I can spare only a few minutes, please be brief with your presentation.

Since I can spare only a few minutesadverb clause,  
please be brief with your  
presentation.

 - Since I can spare only a few minutes modifies brief

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