Daily Grammar

Lesson 263

Parts of the Sentence - Adverb Dependent Clauses

A complex sentence is made up of an independent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.
Source: Lesson 246
and a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246.

Example:
The television was playingindependent clause   
as I left the roomdependent clause.

There are three kinds of dependent clauses: adjective clauseThe adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.
Source: Lesson 251
, adverb clause, and noun clause. An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, or another adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161. They usually modify the verb.

Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84
including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.

Example:
They arrived before the game had endedadverb clause.

 - before the game had ended modifies arrivedV

Sometimes the adverb clause is placed at the beginning of the sentence. When it introduces the sentence, it is always set off with a comma.

Example:
Before the game had endedadverb clause, they  
arrived.

Than and as introduce clauses that are called elliptical clauses. That is they have some of their parts understood but not stated.

Example:
You are smarter than Iadverb clause. (am smart omitted)

 - than I modifies the comparative word smarterPAdj

Instructions: Complete the elliptical adverb clauses in the following sentences and tell what they modify.

1. My dog is older than I.

My dog is older than I am old.
 - than I am old modifies olderPAdj

2. Jim can run faster than Jeff.

Jim can run faster than Jeff can run fast.
 - than Jeff can run fast modifies fasterAdv

3. Pam spells more accurately than she keyboards.

Pam spells more accurately than she keyboards accurately.
 - than she keyboards accurately modifies accuratelyAdv

4. He is trying as hard as James.

He is trying as hard as James is trying hard.
 - as James is trying hard modifies hardAdv

5. Barbara is a better tennis player than Jeanne.

Barbara is a better tennis player than Jeanne is a good tennis player.
 - than Jeanne is a good tennis player modifies betterAdj







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