Daily Grammar

Lesson 264

Parts of the Sentence - Adverb Dependent Clauses

A complex sentence is made up of an independent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.
Source: Lesson 246
and a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246.

Example:
The television was playingindependent clause   
as I left the roomdependent clause.

There are three kinds of dependent clauses: adjective clauseThe adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.
Source: Lesson 251
, adverb clause, and noun clause. An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, or another adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161. They usually modify the verb.

Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84
including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.

Example:
They arrived before the game had endedadverb clause.

 - before the game had ended modifies arrivedV

Sometimes the adverb clause is placed at the beginning of the sentence. When it introduces the sentence, it is always set off with a comma.

Example:
Before the game had endedadverb clause, they  
arrived.

Than and as introduce clauses that are called elliptical clauses. That is they have some of their parts understood but not stated.

Example:
You are smarter than Iadverb clause. (am smart omitted)

 - than I modifies the comparative word smarterPAdj

Instructions: Find the adverb clauses in the following sentences and tell what they modify.

1. Although I became tired, I enjoyed the hike.

Although I became tiredadverb clause, I enjoyed the hike.

 - Although I became tired modifies enjoyedV

2. You cannot become an expert driver until you drive for several years.

You cannot become an expert driver until you drive for several yearsadverb clause.

 - until you drive for several years modifies can becomeV

3. Buy that coat now because it might be sold tomorrow.

Buy that coat now because it might be sold tomorrowadverb clause.

 - because it might be sold tomorrow modifies BuyV

4. I cannot reach the top window unless I have a ladder.

I cannot reach the top window unless I have a ladderadverb clause.

 - unless I have a ladder modifies can reachV

5. After you have eaten lunch, we will leave for New York.

After you have eaten lunchadverb clause, we will  
leave for New York.

 - After you have eaten lunch modifies will leaveV







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