Daily Grammar

Lesson 270

Parts of the Sentence - Adverb Clauses

Adverb clausesThe adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. They usually modify the verb. Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunction including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while.  Source: Lesson 261 can be used in various ways (as with adjective clausesThe adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.
Source: Lesson 251
). Because of this, they can give variety to your sentences.

Sometimes we find adverb clauses that have left some words out. They are called reduced adverb clauses.

Example:
While (she was) speaking to the timid student, the teacher spoke slowly.

Than and as introduce clauses that are called elliptical clauses. That is they have some of their parts understood but not stated.

Example:
You are smarter than I (am smart).
 - than I modifies the comparative word smarterPAdj

Instructions: Find the adverb clauses in these sentences and tell what word they modify.  If it is a reduced adverb clause or elliptical adverb clause add the missing words.

1. You act as if I enjoy punishing you.

You act as if I enjoy punishing you.
 - as if I enjoy punishing you modifies actV

2. The contractor roughened the concrete while it was still wet.

The contractor roughened the concrete while it was still wet.
 - while it was still wet modifies roughenedV

3. My sister is smarter than I.

My sister is smarter than I (am smart).
 -- elliptical adverb clause
 - than I (am smart) modifies smarterPAdj

4. The manager talked with the workers after listening to their suggestions.

The manager talked with the workers after (he had listened) to their suggestions.
 -- reduced adverb clause
 - after (he had listened) to their suggestions modifies talkedV

5. Before returning to work, he ate his lunch.

Before (he returned) to work, he ate his lunch.
 -- reduced adverb clause
 - Before (he returned) to work modifies ateV

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