Daily Grammar

Lesson 279

Parts of the Sentence - Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses

The adjective clause is a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246 that modifies a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: man, city, book, and courage.  Source: Lesson 16 or a pronounA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or a group of words used as a noun.
Source: Lesson 21
.  It will begin with a relative pronounRelative pronouns join dependent clauses to independent clauses. They are who, whose, whom, which, and that.  Source: Lesson 26 (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84
(when and where).  Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.  The introductory word will always rename the word that it follows and modifies except when used with a prepositionA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 176 which will come between the introductory word and the word it renames.

Examples:
The student whose hand was upadjective clause gave  
the wrong answer.

Jane is a person in whom I can place my confidenceadjective clause.

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, or another adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161.  It usually modifies the verbAdverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84
including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.

Example:
They arrived before the game had endedadverb clause.

 - before the game had ended modifies arrived

A noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used in the same way as a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: man, city, book, and courage.  Source: Lesson 16 or pronounA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or a group of words used as a noun.
Source: Lesson 21
. It can be a subjectThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 95, predicate nominativeA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 102, direct objectA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 109
, appositiveAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 128, indirect objectAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, or object of the prepositionA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180.  Some of the words that introduce noun clauses are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever. To check if the dependent clause is a noun clause, substitute the clause with the pronoun it or the proper form of the pronouns he or she.

Example:
I know who said thatnoun clause 
=  I know it.

Whoever said itnoun clause is wrong.   
He is wrong.

Instructions: Find the adjective, adverb, or noun clauses in these sentences.  If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause tell how they are used (subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition).

1. That the tiger was gentle and tame was not certain.

That the tiger was gentle and tamenoun clause  
was not certain.

 - That the tiger was gentle and tame  =  subject

2. Do not use that comb which has no teeth.

Do not use that comb which has no teethadjective clause.

 - which has no teeth modifies combDO

3. If the treaty is signed, the President will leave at once.

If the treaty is signedadverb clause, the President  
will leave at once.

 - If the treaty is signed modifies will leaveV

4. Patty explained how embalming is done.

Patty explained how embalming is donenoun clause.

 - how embalming is done  =  direct object

5. Jack asked why the game had been canceled.

Jack asked why the game had been cancelednoun clause.

 - why the game had been canceled  =  direct object







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