Daily Grammar

Lesson 297

Parts of the Sentence - Compound & Complex Sentences

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verb, subjectsThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 95, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 102, direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 109
, appositivesAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 128, nouns of addressNouns or nominatives of address are the persons or things to which you are speaking. They are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas, may have modifiers, and are not related to the rest of the sentence grammatically. You can remove them and a complete sentence remains. Source: Lesson 131, adjectivesAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, adverbsAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161, prepositionsA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180, objects of the preposition, indirect objectsAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, objective complementsAn objective complement can be a noun or an adjective which follows the direct object renaming or modifying it. It is used with verbs like make, name, call, choose, elect, and appoint.  Source: Lesson 196, conjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases (groups of words), or clauses (groups of words with a subjects and verb).  Source: Lesson 76, relative pronounsRelative pronouns join dependent clauses to independent clauses. They are who, whoever, whose, whom, whomever, which, and that.  Source: Lesson 26, and verbalsA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.  Source: Lesson 206 in the following sentences.

If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerundA gerund is a verbal that always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Example: Eating is fun.  Source: Lesson 212, participleA participle is a verbal and is used as an adjective. Participles end in various ways. They modify nouns and pronouns and can precede or follow the word they modify. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.  Source: Lesson 222, noun infinitiveA noun infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as a noun. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 212, adjective infinitiveAn adjective infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adjective. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 224, or adverb infinitiveAn adverb infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 234.  If there are any adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, verbals, or verbal phrases then tell what word they modify.

If the sentence has a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246, tell whether it is a adjective clauseThe adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.
Source: Lesson 255
, adverb clauseThe adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. They usually modify the verb. Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunction including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while.  Source: Lesson 265, or noun clauseA noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used in the same way as a noun or pronoun. It can be a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition. Some of the words that introduce noun clause are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever.  Source: Lesson 275.  If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause tell how they are used.

1. Since we had gone only a mile from camp, we could return before dark, and we would not become lost.

SinceC weS had goneV onlyAdv aAdj mileAdv fromPrep  
campOoP, weS could returnV  
beforePrep  
darkOoP,  
andC weS  
 
wouldV notAdv becomeV lostPAdj.

  - Since we had gone only a mile from camp (adverb clause) modifies could return
  - only and a modify mile
  - mile modifies had gone
  - from camp (adjective prepositional phrase) modifies mile
  - before dark (adverb prepositional phrase) modifies could return
  - not modifies would become
  - lost modifies we

2. After the tornado had hit, my house was gone, but my neighbor's house was not touched.

AfterC theAdj tornadoS had hitV, myAdj houseS  
was goneV, butC myAdj  
neighbor'sAdj  
houseS  
wasV  
notAdv  
touchedV.

  - After the tornado had hit (adverb clause) modifies was gone
  - the modifies tornado
  - my modifies house
  - my and neighbor's modify house
  - not modifies was touched

3. Mary heard the frightening noise again, and the sound was one that would frighten the bravest of people.

MaryS heardV theAdj frighteningVbl noiseDO  
againAdv, andC theAdj soundS  
wasV onePN  
thatS  
 
would frightenV  
theAdj bravestDO  
ofPrep peopleOoP.

  - the modifies noise
  - frightening (participle) modifies noise
  - again modifies heard
  - the modifies sound
  - that would frighten the bravest of people (adjective clause) modifies one
  - the modifies bravest
  - of people (adjective prepositional phrase) modifies caught

4. The route can be changed, but I know several people who will not like the change.

TheAdj routeS can be changedV, butC IS  
knowV severalAdj peopleDO whoS  
willV notAdv  
 
likeV  
theAdj changeDO.

  - The modifies route
  - several modifies people
  - who will not like the change (adjective clause) modifies people
  - not modifies will like
  - the modifies change

5. Dr. Mathews did what could be done, but it simply was not enough to save his life.

Dr. MathewsS didV whatS could be doneV,  
butC itS simplyAdv wasV notAdv  
enoughPAdj  
 
to saveVbl  
hisAdj lifeDO.

  - what could be done (noun clause) used as the direct object
  - simply and not modify was
  - enough modifies it
  - to save his life (adverb infinitive phrase) modifies enough
  - his modifies life

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