Daily Grammar

Lesson 202

Parts of the Sentence - Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases (groups of words), or clauses (groups of words with a subjectThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 91 and verbVerbs show action or state of being. Most verbs are action words, but a few verbs indicate state of being or existence.
Source: Lesson 1
).  Co-ordinate conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank.  There are two kinds: simple and correlative.

In these lessons simple co-ordinates will be referred to as co-ordinate conjunctions, and correlative co-ordinates will be referred to as correlative conjunctions.  The co-ordinate and correlative conjunctions should be memorized since they are common and few in number.


The co-ordinate conjunctions are the following: and, but, or, nor, for, and yet. (For and yet can only join clauses.)

The correlative conjunctions are always in pairs. They are either-or, neither-nor, both-and, not only-but also, and whether-or.


Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verbs, subjects, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 102, direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 109
, appositivesAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 128, nouns of addressNouns or nominatives of address are the persons or things to which you are speaking. They are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas, may have modifiers, and are not related to the rest of the sentence grammatically. You can remove them and a complete sentence remains. Source: Lesson 131, adjectivesAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, adverbsAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161, prepositionsA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180, objects of the preposition, indirect objectsAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, objective complementsAn objective complement can be a noun or an adjective which follows the direct object renaming or modifying it. It is used with verbs like make, name, call, choose, elect, and appoint.  Source: Lesson 196, and conjunctions in the following sentences.  If there are any conjunctions tell whether they are co-ordinate or correlative conjunctions.

1. Run up the hill and through the valley.

RunV upPrep theAdj hillOoP andC throughPrep theAdj  
valleyOoP. (understood youS)

 - and = co-ordinate conjunction

2. I will be waiting for Ann and her family.

IS will be waitingV forPrep AnnOoP andC herAdj  

 - and = co-ordinate conjunction

3. The clouds were neither large nor billowy.

TheAdj cloudsS wereV neitherC largePAdj norC  

 - neither / nor = correlative conjunctions

4. At the convention I saw not only my neighbor but also my cousin.

AtPrep theAdj conventionOoP IS sawV not onlyC theAdj  
neighborDO but alsoC myAdj  

 - not only / but also = correlative conjunctions

5. The dog owner called his favorite dogs Laddie and Lady.

TheAdj dogAdj ownerS calledV hisAdj favoriteAdj  
dogsDO LaddieOC andC LadyOC.

 - and = co-ordinate conjunction

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