Daily Grammar

Lesson 282

Parts of the Sentence - Clauses Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verbsVerbs show action or state of being. Most verbs are action words, but a few verbs indicate state of being or existence.
Source: Lesson 1
, subjectsThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 95, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 102, direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 109
, appositivesAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 128, nouns of addressNouns or nominatives of address are the persons or things to which you are speaking. They are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas, may have modifiers, and are not related to the rest of the sentence grammatically. You can remove them and a complete sentence remains. Source: Lesson 131, adjectivesAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, adverbsAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161, prepositionsA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180, objects of the preposition, indirect objectsAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, objective complementsAn objective complement can be a noun or an adjective which follows the direct object renaming or modifying it. It is used with verbs like make, name, call, choose, elect, and appoint.  Source: Lesson 196, conjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases (groups of words), or clauses (groups of words with a subjects and verb).  Source: Lesson 76, relative pronounsRelative pronouns join dependent clauses to independent clauses. They are who, whoever, whose, whom, whomever, which, and that.  Source: Lesson 26, and verbalsA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.  Source: Lesson 206 in the following sentences.

If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerundA gerund is a verbal that always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Example: Eating is fun.  Source: Lesson 212, participleA participle is a verbal and is used as an adjective. Participles end in various ways. They modify nouns and pronouns and can precede or follow the word they modify. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.  Source: Lesson 222, noun infinitiveA noun infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as a noun. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 212, adjective infinitiveAn adjective infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adjective. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 224, or adverb infinitiveAn adverb infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 234.  If there are any adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, verbals, or verbal phrases then tell what word they modify.

If the sentence has a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246, tell whether it is a adjective clauseThe adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.
Source: Lesson 251
, adverb clauseThe adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. They usually modify the verb. Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunction including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while.  Source: Lesson 263, or noun clauseA noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used in the same way as a noun or pronoun. It can be a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition. Some of the words that introduce noun clause are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever.  Source: Lesson 271.  If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause tell how they are used.

1. This is the driest year that we have had recently.

ThisS isV theAdj driestAdj yearPN thatDO weS  
have hadV recentlyAdv.

  - the and driest modify year
  - that we have had recently (adjective clause) modifies year
  - recently modifies have had

2. Jim wondered why we hadn't called him.

JimS wonderedV whyAdv weS hadVn'tAdv calledV  
himDO.

  - why we hadn't called him (noun clause) used as the direct object
  - why (introductory word) modifies had called
  - not modifies had called

3. It is evident that you didn't listen.

ItS isV evidentPAdj thatC youS didVn'tAdv listenV.

  - evident modifies It
  - that you didn't listen (adverb clause) modifies evident
  - n't modifies did listen

4. I gave whoever asked the directions to the camp.

IS gaveV whoeverS askedV theAdj directionsDO  
toPrep theAdj campOoP.

  - whoever asked (noun clause) used as the indirect object
  - the modifies directions
  - to the camp (adjective prepositional phrase) modifies directions
  - the modifies camp

5. Texas is where the flooding occurred.

TexasS isV whereAdv theAdj floodingVbl occurredV.

  - where the flooding occurred (noun clause) used as the predicate nominative
  - where (introductory word) modifies occurred
  - the modifies flooding
  - flooding (gerund) used as the subject

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