Daily Grammar

Lesson 245

Parts of the Sentence - Verbals Review

Instructions: Using all the knowledge learned in the previous lessons, find the verb, subjectsThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 91, predicate nominativesA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 101, direct objectsA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 106
, appositivesAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 126, nouns of addressNouns or nominatives of address are the persons or things to which you are speaking. They are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas, may have modifiers, and are not related to the rest of the sentence grammatically. You can remove them and a complete sentence remains. Source: Lesson 131, adjectivesAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, predicate adjectivesAn adjective that comes after a linking verb and modifies the subject.
Source: Lesson 155
, adverbsAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161, prepositionsA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180, objects of the preposition, indirect objectsAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, objective complementsAn objective complement can be a noun or an adjective which follows the direct object renaming or modifying it. It is used with verbs like make, name, call, choose, elect, and appoint.  Source: Lesson 196, conjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases (groups of words), or clauses (groups of words with a subjects and verb).  Source: Lesson 201, and verbalsA verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.  Source: Lesson 206 in the following sentences.

If the word is a verbal, tell whether it is a gerundA gerund is a verbal that always ends in ing and is used as a noun. Example: Eating is fun.  Source: Lesson 212, participleA participle is a verbal and is used as an adjective. Participles end in various ways. They modify nouns and pronouns and can precede or follow the word they modify. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen.  Source: Lesson 222, noun infinitiveA noun infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as a noun. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 212, adjective infinitiveAn adjective infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adjective. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 224, or adverb infinitiveAn adverb infinitive is a verbal that is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.  Source: Lesson 234.  If there are any adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, verbals, or verbal phrases then tell what word they modify.

Example:
The actors performed there to entertain and to be seen.
TheAdj actorsS performedV thereAdv to entertainVbl  
andC to be seenVbl.

  - The modifies actors
  - there modifies performed
  - to entertain and to be seen (adverb infinitives) modify performed

1. The rules are hard to remember.

TheAdj rulesS areV hardPAdj to rememberVbl.

  - The modifies rules
  - hard modifies rules
  - to remember (adverb infinitive) modifies hard

2. Carl hopes to have enough time this week.

CarlS hopesV to haveVbl enoughAdj timeDO thisAdj  
weekAdv.

  - to have enough time this week (noun infinitive phrase) used as a direct object
  - enough modifies time
  - time is a direct object to to have
  - this modifies week
  - week modifies to have

3. The President favors spending more money for welfare.

TheAdj PresidentS favorsV spendingVbl morePAdj  
moneyDO forPrep welfareOoP.

  - The modifies President
  - spending more money for welfare (gerund phrase) used as a direct object
  - more modifies money
  - money is used as a direct object to spending
  - for welfare (prepositional phrase) modifies spending

4. The destroyed room left no clues for the police.

ThePAdj destroyedVbl roomS leftV noPAdj cluesDO  
forPrep thePAdj policeOoP?

  - destroyed (participle) modifies room
  - no modifies clues
  - for the police (prepositional phrase) modifies clues
  - the modifies police

5. I saw her trying to save the drowning cat.

IS sawV herDO tryingVbl to saveVbl thePAdj drowningVbl  
catDO.

  - trying (participle) used as an objective complement
  - to save the drowning cat (noun infinitive phrase) used as a direct object to trying
  - the modifies cat
  - drowning (participle) modifies cat
  - cat is used as a direct object to to save

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