Daily Grammar

Lesson 237

Parts of the Sentence - Verbals

A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles, and infinitives.

A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. Examples: man, city, book, and courage.  Source: Lesson 16.

Example:
Eating is fun.

A participle is used as an adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151 and ends various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly.

Examples:
played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen

An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161.

Examples:
to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten

Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives, or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.

1. Signs hung too high can't be read.

Signs hung too high can't be read.
 - hung too high (participial phrase) modifies SignsS

2. You know my weakness, eating late at night.

You know my weakness, eating late at night.
 - eating late at night (gerund phrase) used as an appositive

3. Your weeping and wailing will not change a thing.

Your weeping and wailing will not change a thing.
 - weeping (gerund) and weeping (gerund) used as subjects

4. To decorate for the dance will cost too much.

To decorate for the dance will cost too much.
 - To decorate for the dance (noun infinitive phrase) used as a subject

5. Do you have a book to read?

Do you have a book to read?
 - to read (adverb infinitive phrase) modifies Do haveV

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