Daily Grammar

Lesson 240

Parts of the Sentence - Verbals

A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles, and infinitives.

A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. Examples: man, city, book, and courage.  Source: Lesson 16.

Example:
Eating is fun.

A participle is used as an adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151 and ends various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly.

Examples:
played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen

An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161.

Examples:
to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten

Instructions: Find the gerunds, gerund phrases, participles, participial phrases, infinitives, or infinitive phrases in these sentences, tell what kind of verbal they are, and how they are used.

1. You are difficult to understand.

You are difficult to understand.
 - to understand (adverb infinitive) modifies difficultPAdj

2. Jack hopes to join the Army next month.

Jack hopes to join the Army next month.
 - to join the Army next month (noun infinitive phrase) used as the direct object

3. The Senate favors increasing taxes.

The Senate favors increasing taxes.
 - increasing taxes (gerund phrase) used as the direct object

4. The broken lamp lay on the floor.

The broken lamp lay on the floor.
 - broken (participle) modifies lampS

5. I saw him trying to open the trunk.

I saw him trying to open the trunk.
 - trying to open the trunk (participial phrase) modifies himDO

 - to open the trunk (noun infinitive phrase) used as the direct object to trying

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